In this article, we covered “What are the internal parts of Processor and their functions”
Clear and Easy Processor Definition or CPU Definition
What are the Processor and process?
it makes logic that whatever work you give to someone, if he does it, then we will say that the process. Processors are processes to command given by you.
If you add a number on the calculator, the calculator rapidly adds it and shows it on the display. The process that does arithmetic called process. Simple, called process. Now the processor who procedures this work called the processor. The chip that calculates the calculation inside the calculator called processor.
The processor is a small chip attached to the computer’s motherboard. Which is also microprocessor. Its work is straightforward. This chip works in input and output. Now, what are this input and output? The input is command what you give to your computer or receive from the active software application on screen and background. The output is what you take from the computer with the given instructions and running applications. It’s clear now. We will go deeply next.
What is CPU on the computer?
In another word, the processor called CPU i.e. central processing unit. The CPU is in the center of the motherboard. It is easy to detect because the cooling fan which looks on the motherboard is just above the CPU. The only reason for applying the cooling fan above the CPU is that it quickly heats.
Components of CPU
There are 3 workings in CPU that contain two operative components and one is a memory. CPU has primary component ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit), and other is CU (Control Unit)
- Memory: The memory of CPU is that here the input instruction goes first and remain in the same place.
- CU (Control Unit): This is also a director. The director who directs anything. Whatever input command has given, first it takes the director in his hand. The director keeps communicating with ALU and memory.
- ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit): ALU works on the Match problem and decision operation of Mathematics.
Processor Speed or Clock Speed
Nowadays everyone wants speed in the fast-growing life. Computer Speed or Processor speed is also one of them. That’s why everyone checks their speed before purchasing those who need a fast computer. Processor speed: The speed of the processor, which shows how much processor can process work or task in a cycle. The speed of the processor measured in megahertz or Gigahertz. All processors coming out today express Speed at Gigahertz.
Now, what are Gigahertz and Megahertz? It’s not complicated.
Hertz means the cycle.
Megahertz measured in millions. Megahertz = one million cycles, 1000000 cycles.
Gigahertz measured in Billions. Gigahertz = one billion cycles, 10000000 cycles.
What does CPU Operate?
CPU operates on three things. First Fetch, Decode, and then Execute
Fetch The input instruction that CPU first gets stored in the RAM memory. After that this input instruction fetches from the memory, meaning input instruction taken from the memory. This input instruction is measured in numbers in memory, which means whatever input instruction will come in memory, it is in the numbers. Like 0 and 1 in Which also called binary language.
Decode: Decode means understanding something and then verifying it. This work is of CPU circuit. There is a circuit in CPU which is called an instruction decoder. That circuit works on decoding. CPU understands that input instruction and then sees what to do on it.
Execute: When the instruction has decoded, then it is ready for the next step. The next step is the execution. Now it must see what the instruction is. If this is Math instruction then it will be executing for ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit). Even if it is the direction of comparison, it will also execute for ALU but ALU will not give any result here. The work of executing is to send the instruction forward, which will work and the result will be found.
How does processor Work?
If seen, the above CPU operation and the components of CPU are very easy to understand how the CPU works. But let us take a further example of how CPU works. The work that is to fetch and decode is in the Control Unit. and the execute work that happens is in the ALU.
Cache memory is the memory that stores any data for a limited time. When you work on a Video project, Video Editor Software load video clips and audio from Hard Drive, and it loads to RAM memory. Due to the high speed of RAM memory, video clips load very fast in the video editor, it prevents time and Lag during importing and editing.
The memory installed in the processor is actually three types of, And the types of these three are written in the level. which we call L1 cache memory, L2 cache memory, L3 cache memory. If you want to know in full details about cache memory, then we will advise you to read it full What is Cache memory Article.
The first CPU chip had the only one processor unit in it Which means CPU can only work one process. But in today’s chip (CPU), more than one processor is working, which we call processor core.
If two processors are working on CPU then it is Dual Core Processor CPU. Dual means the two.
If four processors are working then it is called Quad-core CPU, and so on
Two Processor in CPU = Dual Core Processor
Four Processor in CPU = Quad Core Processor
Six Processor in CPU = Six-Core Processor or Hex Core Processor
Eight Processor in CPU = Octa-Core Processor
Ten Processor in CPU = Deca Core Processor
Now, what does the processor compute meaning in CPU?
The Two core processor of 2.93 GHz will work on the speed of 1465 Mhz.
One core 1465 Mhz.
Two Core Processor = 1465 X 2 = 2930 Mhz or 2.93 GHz
32 bit and 64 bit (32 bit vs 64 bit)
The processor works on two types of bit, one contains 32 bit one is 64 bits. Now, what are these 32 bits and 64 bits? And what are the difference between 32 bits and 64 bits?
If we talk about hardware, a 32-bit processor is associated with the architecture. 32-bit processor means to store 4,294,967,296 values.
How it came to value now is 4,294,967,296?
1 bit = 2 Value
2 bit = 4 Value
3 bit = 8 Value
4 bit = 16 Value
Now, the value doubled on every bit. If multiplied by such a 32 bit, the value will be 4,294,967,296.
If we read this in technical language, then it gets 4,294,967,296 decimal numbers of 32 bits.
CPU always stores the data in the numbers and resolves the data in numbers only. As we have also written above, CPU takes the numbers from the memory.
32 Bit Operating System – The 32-bit operating system can run on 64-bit systems. Because 64-bit architecture supports software of 32-bit. But 64-bit software or operating system can’t run on 32-bit processors. 32-bit architecture is designed for 32-bit software and operating system.
Like this, 64 bits can store 18,446,744,073,709,551,616. And one thing, 64-bit CPU can transfer 64-bit data to a Clock Cycle. Here, 64-bit processors can now run the 32-bit software and operating systems. After 2010, all the operating systems and software were made from 64-bit technology.
What is the difference between 32 bits and 64 bits?
- 32-bit architecture processor supports up to 4 GB of RAM. Whereas The 64-bit architecture can use 256 terabytes of RAM
- The speed of working in a 32-bit processor and 64-bit processor is very different.
- 64-bit processors come in more cores. Dual core, quad core, hex core, decay core
If we talk directly, then it is possible to run the RAM up to 32-bit 4 GB. If 16 GB RAM is on the computer then 32-bit architecture will only read 4 GB Ram.
NM (Nanometer) Technology
The small transistors that are in the processor are formed in the nanometer which is made up of the other transistor with a transistor. Do not understand? Interconnect from one transistor to another transistor is called nanometer technology. In other words, Nanometer measures the height of the metal gate, and pitch of gates.
The smaller the nanometer, the faster, and the best performance will be CPU.
Generation of processors shows which architecture is working in the processor. As the generation changes, the size of the architecture and the processor’s performance changes. Generation can be read and seen in the Intel company’s I series processors like i3, i5, i7, i9. The processor generation has the same difference as the architecture that works in the processor. What is Computer Generations?
Types of CPU and First Launched CPU Processor
About how many CPU types we have talked about in the CPU core or processor core. The CPU types are those like 32 bits 64 bits, single core and dual core, and other we wrote above.
But here Talk about the processor’s company
First Invented Processor
First Intel company had launched its first processor in the market. This time was November 1971. The company named the processor Intel 4004. Intel engineers Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, and Stan Mazor made it. It was a single chip processor that used to work on 4 bits (Bit has explained above). There were 2300 transistors in this processor, which used 60000 operations in one second.
(Now you will not go into more details here, who had created a processor where they were born, what did they read, what had done in their life, etc.).
Then the Intel company started its second processor named Intel 8008 processor. After 8008, Intel launched 8080 processors. The same list is very long.
AMD Processors Company started its Microprocessor AM 386 in March 1991. Its clock speed ranged from just 20 MHz to 40 MHz. In today’s time, this speed sounds like a fun. But at that time the speed was too much to work.
If you talk about processor Comparison, then the AMD processor and Intel processors both offer the best feature at their own process.
So far, whatever has written above was written in different parts of the processor.
Now let’s talk about the types of processors
GPU (Graphics Processing Unit): We will not talk about it deeply. So far, the computer processor has talked about. After that, in the computer world, there is a GPU called Graphic Processing Unit. The display on the screen, show transparency, this is all the work of the graphics processing unit. Rendering small pixels on that screen, the GPU is the only thing to show full display. It is installed separately on the motherboard of the computer.
SoC Processors (System on Chip)
System on the chip only works on laptops or mobile phones. Components that are used on the motherboard of the computer do all the different things. The processor works differently, the Ram works differently, the GPU works differently, the modem works differently, the hard disk works differently.
But this does not happen in the SoC chip. In the SoC chip, all the components fitted on a single silicon chip which also consumes less space and, also electricity. Mostly this chip used in mobile phones. That is why it called a system on a chip. That is, the whole system mounted on a chip.
If there is still any question left in the mind, then go to the page of the Question Answers and see the answers to all the questions about it.